## Sunday, February 24, 2013

### N-Channel MOSFET High-Side Drive: When, Why and How?

I had previously shown how to drive N-channel MOSFETs in low-side configuration. You can find the tutorial here:

http://tahmidmc.blogspot.com/2012/12/low-side-mosfet-drive-circuits-and_23.html

I’ve been requested to write a tutorial/article regarding high-side MOSFET drive. So, here I’ll talk about N-channel MOSFET high-side drive.

Let’s first look at the common low side configuration.

Fig. 1 - N-channel MOSFET configured as low-side switch

Now let’s look at a MOSFET configured as a high-side switch.

Fig. 2 - N-channel MOSFET configured as high-side switch

You can quite easily see the difference between the high-side configuration and the low-side configuration. In the low-side configuration, the load is connected between the drain and +V, while the source is connected to ground. Thus, the gate drive is referenced to ground. So by applying a voltage of >7V (for Power MOSFETs) or >4V (for Logic Level MOSFETs), the MOSFET can be fully turned on.

Now let’s talk about the high-side configuration. The load is connected between the source and ground with the drain connected to +V. Thus the gate drive is not referenced to ground as source is not connected to ground and gate drive is related to VGS (voltage at gate with respect to source). I’ll talk about this in a while.

The difference in operation for the MOSFET configured as high-side switch as opposed to the MOSFET configured as low-side switch is that, it acts as a current source whereas the MOSFET configured as low-side switch acts as a current sink.

Now let’s go back to the high-side drive. Let’s say you apply a voltage of 12V (with reference to ground) to the MOSFET gate. However, when the MOSFET is on, voltage at source is equal to +V. Let’s assume +V is +15V. Now the problem is +12V gate drive (with reference to ground) will not keep the MOSFET on. When the MOSFET is on, the MOSFET source will be at a potential of +15V. To be on, the MOSFET must have +8V VGS minimum. So, if source is at +15V, the voltage at the gate with respect to ground must be at least +23V. If source was at +300V, for example, gate drive would require a minimum of +308V with respect to ground. This is if the gate drive is referenced to ground. If you have a separate isolated power supply whose ground and the ground of the MOSFET-based circuit are isolated, then  you can use that to drive the MOSFET as well.

There are quite a few ways to drive MOSFETs in high-side configuration. The first thing that might come into the minds of many of you would be a boost converter circuit or a charge pump circuit to use as the drive voltage for gate drive. This concept is sometimes used and isn’t wrong. However, it is usually used when voltage gap between control circuit voltage and gate drive requirement is small. If you needed to step up voltage from 12V to 40V for example, you might be able to accomplish it quite easily. However, a problem arises when there is the need to step up voltages from 12V to, say, 300V. In such situations, other solutions must be sought.

One simple solution is to use a gate drive transformer. This is not a method I prefer and thus I will not talk about it here. If you are interested, I might write another article just for gate drive transformers.

Another solution is to use a separate/isolated power supply whose ground is separate from the ground of the MOSFET-based circuit. See Fig. 3 below.

The other popular method is to use bootstrap based drive. In this drive method, a capacitor is charged to the required VGS – let’s say 10V – when the MOSFET is off. Then this capacitor is used during driving the MOSFET to provide an additional 10V over the source.

First I’ll talk about the use of a separate/isolated power supply. Here’s a circuit diagram illustrating this:

Fig. 3 - Driving a high-side N-channel MOSFET from a separate/isolated power supply (click image to enlarge)

When a logic high is given to “Drive Signal”, potential at optocoupler pin 4 (emitter of optocoupler transistor) is about +12V with respect to the ground / negative terminal/point of BAT1 – the separate/isolated power supply. This point is connected to Q1 source. Thus Q2 turns on. About +12V, with respect to Q1 source, is provided to Q1 gate. Thus Q1 is driven on.

When a logic low is given to “Drive Signal”, optocoupler pin 4 (emitter of optocoupler transistor) is at the same potential as the ground / negative terminal/point of BAT1 – the separate/isolated power supply. So Q3 turns on and pulls Q1 gate low. Thus MOSFET Q1 is driven off.

Note that the optocoupler ground is the same ground as the ground of the MOSFET-based circuit.

Here’s the current flow for when the “Drive Signal” is a logic high.

Fig. 4 - Current flow when driving a high-side N-channel MOSFET on, from a separate/isolated power supply (click image to enlarge)

This driver can be used for any duty cycle – all the way from 0% to 100%. The driving frequency is limited by the speed of the optocoupler. For high frequencies, optically isolated MOSFET drivers may be used instead of the two transistors and the optocoupler – the optically isolated MOSFET driver will be all that’s needed. Some such drivers are TLP250, TLP350, HCPL3120, etc.

Now let’s talk about the boostrap based drive. Here when the high-side MOSFET is off, a capacitor is charged from the driving voltage. The capacitor charges through the load or a supporting low-side MOFSET. When the high-side MOSFET is to be turned on/driven, the voltage on the capacitor is used to drive the high-side MOSFET. Thus the limitation of this method is quite obvious. A large enough capacitor should be used for storing the required energy/charge for keeping the high-side MOSFET on for the required time. At the same time, the capacitor must be large enough that during the entire driving time, the voltage doesn't fall below about 8V, in order to prevent the MOSFET from being only partially on. Thus, the bootstrap based drive can not be used for 100% or close to 100% duty cycle. And the lower the frequency of operation, the larger the required capacitance.

The easiest way to drive a MOSFET using the boostrap based drive is to use a dedicated high side MOSFET driver. Some drivers come with just the high-side driver while many come with both high-side and low-side drivers. IR2117, for example, is one driver that contains a single driver that can be used to drive a high-side MOSFET driver. IR2110, which is arguably the most popular high-low side MOSFET driver, features a high-side driver and a low-side driver in a single device. I’ve written a detailed tutorial regarding the use of IR2110. Here's the tutorial:

http://tahmidmc.blogspot.com/2013/01/using-high-low-side-driver-ir2110-with.html

Besides the IR2110, there are many high-low side drivers available. L6385E and NCP2181 are my personal favorites. You can choose from a wide range of high side and high-low side drivers.

No matter which method you choose, once you know how to handle the drive requirement, it's really easy. In most cases, I use the bootstrap based drivers, although I do occasionally use isolated power-supply based drive. None of these methods are too difficult and I hope I've managed to provide you a clear answer to your question: "Why are high-side N-channel MOSFETs to be driven differently from low-side N-channel MOSFETs, and how do we drive the high-side N-channel MOSFET?" Do let me know your comments and feedback.

1. hi thahmid great explination and well done.
i haven't any doubt because your explination was covered all area .
but i have two request .

1-Can u explain about Transformer driver ?

2-Can give a detailed calculation method to find
Gate current, then only we can select the
proper driver for each load /frequency[pwm].

1. Hi,

I'll work on those mentioned topics and will post them in the near future.

Regards,
Tahmid.

2. Thanks for sharing this post. The information which you have provided is very good. Keep it up.

Side mounted level switch manufacture

3. Thanks for sharing this post. The information which you have provided is very good. Keep it up.

Solar DC Led Lighting Bulbs

4. Haven't you heard about cyber hacking company blank ATM card and how other people had benefited from it? I am Williams vivian by name, i want to share a blog and forums on how to get real blank ATM card,thank to cyber hacking company who helped me with an already hacked ATM CARD and i was so poor without funds that i got frustrated. One morning as i was browsing on the internet, i saw different comments of people testifying of how cyber hacking company helped him from being poor to a rich man through this already hacked ATM CARD. I was skeptical if this was true, i decided to contact him to know if he is real he proved to me beyond all doubts that its was really for real so i urgently receive my blank ATM card. Contact his email cyberhackingcompany@gmail.com and today am also testifying on how cyber hacking company helped me. I never believed in it until the card was sent to me, which am using today Contact the company now and become rich. Email: cyberhackingcompany@gmail.com

5. AM HERE TO EXPLORE BLOG AND FORUM ON HOW TO MAKE COOL CASH WITH THE HELP OF BLANK ATM CARD. I was searching for loan to sort out my bills& debts, then i saw comments about Blank ATM Credit Card that can be hacked to withdraw money from any ATM machines around you . I doubted thus but decided to give it a try by contacting {officialhackingcompany@gmail.com} they responded with their guidelines on how the card works. I was assured that the card can withdraw \$5,000 instant per day & was credited with \$50,000,000.00 so i requested for one & paid the delivery fee to obtain the card, after 24 hours later, i was shock to see the UPS agent in my resident with a parcel{card} i signed and went back inside and confirmed the card work's after the agent left. This is no doubts because i have the card & has made used of the card. This hackers are USA based hackers set out to help people with financial freedom!! Contact these email if you wants to get rich with this Via: Email: officialhackingcompany@gmail.com  website: https://official-hacking-company.jimdosite.comwhatsapp contact +1(612)-502-2272.

6. We have a lot of credit cards available. We are trying to get them out of hand to people to enjoy this Xmas and New year.
You can hack and break into a bank's security ATM Machine without carrying guns or any weapon.How is this possible? First of all we have to learn about the manual hacking of ATM MACHINES and BANKING ACCOUNTS HOW THE ATM MACHINE WORKS. If you have been to the bank you find out that the money in the ATM MACHINE is being filled right inside the house where the machine is built with enough security to hack this machine. We have developed the special blank ATM Card which you can use in any ATM Machine around the world. This card is been programmed and can withdraw 5000 USD daily  in any currency your country make use of. depending the card withdrawal amount you buy. The card will make the security camera malfunction at that particular time until you are done with the transaction you can never be traced. If you are interested in getting the card Contact us now and make more money.  email us now mrbeckhamblankatmcard@gmail.com

7. WELCOME TO OFFICIAL HACKING COMPANY   Now you might be wondering what’s the working method to hack atm. I will be explaining briefly on how an atm machine can be hacked but this is not for dummies. So at the end of this post you should decide whether to buy our blank atm cards or do the hack yourself.

ATM hacking can be achieved using skimmers which is mostly undetected. It is installed secretly on the atm and it will grab your card data once you slot in your card and enter your pin. Here are some picture explanation.

OUR SERVICES

We are a professional carding team with a large ring around the globe. With over 2 million ATM infected with our malware and skimmers, we can grab bank card data which include the track 1 and track 2 with the card pin. We in turn clone this cards using the grabbed data into real ATM cards which can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swipe at stores and POS. We sell this cards to all our customers and interested buyers worldwide, the card has a daily withdrawal limit of \$2000 on ATM and up to \$50,000 spending limit on in stores. Here is our price lists for the ATM CARDS: Here is our price list for ATM cards
\$6,000----------------\$350
\$8,000----------------\$500
\$10,000----------------\$700
\$14,000 ------------- \$950
\$18,300---------------\$1,250
\$20,000 ------------- \$1,500
\$35,000 --------------\$2,300 \$50,000 ------------- \$2,700
\$100,000------------- \$6,200 The prices include the shipping fees and charges, order now: Contact us: officialhackingcompany@gmail.com

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ) On the course of rendering this services, we have come across so many clients with different questions so this is aimed at answering few questions you might have:
1: Are you selling money? No, we are not selling money. If you read our post correctly you will understand how this whole thing works.
2: Is this service available for my country? Yes, our services are available worldwide.
3: How do i get my card after payments?

8. GET RICH WITH BLANK ATM CARD ... EMAIL: officialhackingcompany@gmail.com

I want to testify about official hacking company blank atm cards which can withdraw money from any atm machines around the world. I was very poor before and have no job. I saw so many testimony about how official blank atm cards send them the atm blank card and use it to collect money in any atm machine and become rich. ( officialhackingcompany@gmail.com ) I email them also and they sent me the blank atm card. I have use it to get 90,000 dollars. withdraw the maximum of 5,000 USD daily. official hacking company is giving out the card just to help the poor. Hack and take money directly from any atm machine vault with the use of atm programmed card which runs in automatic mode.

Email: officialhackingcompany@gmail.com

9. We Bring To You Good News For Blank ATM Cards..
Have you been trying to get a real blank ATM Card and it has been a problem trying to get one? Here is official hacking company  easy and affordable to get and it can be delivered to you waiting 24hrs after you have made your order from me at: officialhackingcompany@gmail.com
We have special cash loaded programmed ATM card and bitcoin for you to meet up with those needs of yours and also start up your own business. Our ATM card can be used to withdraw cash at any ATM or swipe, stores and POS. Our cards has daily withdrawal limit depending on the card balance you order.You can make from \$2500 to \$50,000.00 In USD And EUR depending on the card you order, we have various amount withdrawal list with our Programmed card. Contact us today for your own order at : officialhackingcompany@gmail.com
Western Union/Money Gram TransferWalmart TransferRemoving of name from debit record and criminal Account top-upBitcoin InvestmentsWe can also help you hack into any software you wish or want us to hack into too.
Do contact for more info and also on how you are going to get your order..Order yours today via Email: Gmail-Compose mail to: officialhackingcompany@gmail.com visit our website: https://officialhackingcom.wixsite.com/official

10. HEY GUYS,.. Joy Allen is my name….
Am so happy to be here, and letting you all know how my life was changed
for good, I read a post online about an ATM hacking card which i also give
it a try,And i received it from the hacker called Mr Frank last week and
now I have \$150,000 for free. The blank ATM withdraws money from any ATM
machines and there is no name on it, it is not traceable and now i have
money for business and enough money for me and my family to live on .I am
really happy i met Mr Frank who transformed my life and that of my family,
After he has finished preparing the ATM he then now send the card through
shipment to me, friends you can order for your on atm hacking today he is
giving it out for a low price to help people even if it is illegal but it
helps a lot and no one ever gets caught. i am grateful to Mr Frank because
he changed my story all of a sudden . The card works in all countries
except. mr Frank email address: mrfrankblankatmcard@gmail.com
website:; https://mrfrankblankatmcar8.wixsite.com/mrfrankblankatmcard

11. I got my already programmed and blanked ATM card to withdraw the maximum of \$1,000 daily for a maximum of 20 days. I am so happy about this because i got mine last week and I have used it to get \$20,000. Mike Fisher Hackers is giving out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it is something nice and he is not like other scam pretending to have the blank ATM cards. And no one gets caught when using the card. get yours from Mike Fisher Hackers today! *email cyberhackingcompany@gmail.com

13. I’m Bella from New York, United States. I lost my job a few months back after my divorce with my wife. I tried everything positive to make sure I took good care of my kids but all failed, and I was in debt which makes everything worse. I was kicked out of my home and i had to live with my neighbor after pleading with her to allow me to stay with her for some days while I figured out how to get a home which she agreed to, but no one was willing to help anymore. I bumped into this page from google and I was excited about this, then I contacted the hackersBill Dean. I had just \$200, so I pleaded with them to help me because of my condition but they never accepted. I believed in this, so I managed to pawn a few things and got \$500. I ordered the \$10,000 card and I got my card delivered to me by Ups 4 days later. I never believed my eyes! I was excited and upset as well, I managed to withdraw \$2000 on the ATM and \$2500 the second day. I went to Walmart and a grocery store and bought a couple of things for \$3000. The card got blocked the third day and I contacted them and I was told it's a mistake from my end. I’m so happy, I have started all over again and have a good apartment with my kids you can contact him through is via email (officialhackingcompany@gmail.com)
Visit there wesbite:
https://officialhackingcom.wixsite.com/official

2. Working great friend

I am getting lot of information from you...such as IR2110 ...ferrite core transformer and much more thanks for sharing..........

--regards

3. bro i am using irf 740 and mct 2 e as isolater timer circuit to produce 75%duty cycle mosfet all 4 r n channel but they r not withstanding voltage they r getting burnt pls help me out soon

1. Use MOSFETs with high enough voltage rating. Also, make sure you take care of any spikes and transients. Eg if you have a motor, when the motor turns off, if you don't have any freewheeling diode/circuitry in place, the spike from the motor will damage your MOSFET.

Regards,
Tahmid.

2. Hello Guys!!! I am Caro I live in Ohio USA I’m 32 Years old, am so happy I got my blank ATM card from Bill Dean. My blank ATM card can withdraw \$7,000 daily. I got it from Him last week and now I have withdrawn about \$15,000 for free. The blank ATM withdraws money from any ATM machines and there is no name on it because it is blank just your PIN will be on it, it is not traceable and now I have money for business, shopping and enough money for me and my family to live on.I am really glad and happy i met Bill Dean because I met Five persons before him and they could not help me. But am happy now Bill Dean sent the card through Fedex and I got it in two days. Get your own card from him right now, he is giving it out for small fee to help people even if it is illegal but it helps a lot and no one ever gets caught or traced. I’m happy and grateful to Bill Dean because he changed my story all of a sudden. The card works in all countries that is the good news Bill Dean email address is officialhackingcompany@gmail.com
visit there website https://official-hacking-company.jimdosite.com/

3. MRS  BELLA PATNOS, UNITED KINGDOM , LONDON
Hi Viewers Get your Blank ATM card that works in all ATM machines all over the world. officialhackingcompany@gmail.com have specially programmed ATM cards that can be used to hack ATM machines, the ATM cards can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swipe, at stores and POS, the card has a limit of \$ 50,000 on ATM depending on the kind of card you order for, and also if you are in need of any other hack services, contact them via Email: officialhackingcompany@gmail.com

4. i want to remove speed v/s char of dc motor upto 220v

5. HI, i have implemented the circuits for testing high and low side, as you have shown on others links for ir2110. I am getting correct signal LO relative to the LIn. But at HO I am getting constant 12v for square wave Hin of 6v at 1khz. where i am doing mistakes ???

1. To measure the signal at HO, what you need to do, is to remove the drive connections to the MOSFETs and connect VS to ground. Then check the signal at HO. If you see the correct signal, remove the connection from VS to ground and then connect the MOSFETs.

It is due to the virtual ground (VS) that your oscilloscope does not properly detect/display the signal.

Regards,
Tahmid.

6. HI,
I wanted know which device I can use for following requirements:
-: Single high side mosfet
-: Pin configuration:
1 - circuit common ground
2 - input
3 - battery
4 - status

1. I don't quite get your question. Could you clarify?

7. HI Tahmid, You are doing really appreciable work.

I have a query.

I need to generate 600 V dc from a 12 V battery. So I want to use a square wave MOSFET inverter to convert 12 V dc to 12 V ac. I am not using sine-wave inverter because I don't have to run any appliances. After that I will use a high frquency ferrite transformer to get 600 V ac from 12 V ac . Finally I will rectify & filter it to get 600 V dc.

Can I use PWM to control the voltage of the square wave inverter? The output of inverter goes to transformer. Is it okay for the transformer to get a PWM input? If yes then what should be the range of duty cycle of PWM?

1. Yes you can use PWM to control the voltage of the square wave inverter. Yes, it is ok for the transformer to get a PWM-ed signal. In fact that's what ferrite transformers get all the time. You should be good with a frequency between 30kHz and 60kHz. The duty cycle will vary depending on your transformer winding ratio and will control the output voltage.

To control the output voltage using PWM, take feedback from the output side (remember to convert to DC and scale down).

Regards,
Tahmid.

8. Thanks a lot. It is difficult to get nicely explained topics on internet but your blog posts are nicely done.

9. HI TAHMID ,

i want your help, i am designing an smps in half bridge, just like the old AT smps not having any auxilary supply, i want to use pulse transformer to drive Mosfets, mosfets are IRF840, power is approx 250 w 28V @ 9 - 10Amps for battery Charging .

Sukhpreet

1. Hi,

Where are you stuck right now? Which specific part do you need help with?

10. Hello Tahmid,

I found your schematic to be very useful in designing a circuit for a 48V battery charger. Thank you very much. Good luck in your studies.

11. Hello Tahmid, i wander, if i have transformator for drive circuit, and i drive mosfet who control 300V not same ground, can it be done like this with optocupler with same ground as battery +12V ?

1. I don't quite understand what you're trying to say. A circuit diagram illustrating what you mean, would be nice.

Regards,
Tahmid.

12. please, can you add the Current flow when driving a high-side N-channel MOSFET off, from a separate/isolated power supply. like the one on Fig. 4

1. I will add a diagram. But for now, the idea is that, when the MOSFET is to be driven off, the LED side of the optoisolator is off. Q3 turns on, pulling the gate of Q1 low. Thus the MOSFET is off.

Regards,
Tahmid.

2. Thabk you so very for your explanation on how to configure mosfets on low and high side..God bless you:can you please provide me with information regarding the construction of a 3 kva inverter using sg3425 and mosfets...thanks:-)

3. Kindly provide me with information on how to construct 3 kva inverter..thank you so much for your efforts.

13. Very useful information . Thanks very much

14. Great stuff, best I have found :) Wondering just one small thing...On the opto isolated drivers like the TLP250 you mentioned, Is that all you need is the power supply to the driver and the driver does the "bootstraping" internally? Or do you need an external bootstrap or voltage boosting in addition? Thank you

1. If you have an isolated driver with the isolated power supply, no "bootstrapping" occurs. Bootstrapping is done only when there is no isolated power supply - to provide a "new" or "virtual" ground with which to reference (if thinking like that helps).

The isolated power supply provides the gate voltage (with respect to source) required to drive the MOSFET.

Hope that helps.

Regards,
Tahmid.

15. Hello Tahmid,
I would like to ask about the configuration when using HCPL3120. I have tried supply the 3120 with isolated source, R2 = 10R, R3 = 1k, and the 2 transistors were skipped, the mosfet I used was IRFP460A, VCC for the mosfet is 24V and the load is 270ohm just for demo. Unfortunately, the voltage between drain and source pin was not square like the input, it had the straight rise-up and down but had curve like sin wave at the top and not stable. I think that is the result of not sharing the same ground (or I have done something wrong). Could you help me a little bit? And what happens if the optocoupler ground is not the same ground as the ground of the MOSFET-based circuit?

1. The optocoupler must NOT have the same ground as the MOSFET ground if you're driving a MOSFET in high-side configuration.

What is the voltage rating of the isolated source you are using?

2. The voltage rating of the isolated source I used for the HCPL3120 was 24V, because the VCC - VEE has to be bigger than or equal 13.5V. And the ground I mentioned was the ground of the cathode of the HCPL3120. Can it be different from the ground of the source that supplies to the drain terminal?

3. This comment has been removed by the author.

4. I have tested with Optocoupler like 4N35 and TLP521-2 and the circuit worked fine with the frequency below 2kHz. But if I raise the frequency up, it starts to curve on the way down
I would like to work with higher frequency from at least 25kHz to 300kHz, that why I used HCPL3120. But the HCPL gave out the waveform with the top happening to be like a sine wave and not very stable.

16. This comment has been removed by the author.

17. Hi Tahmid,

Great Explanation.

I want to drive IRF840 at the frequency of 22Khz when load is connected and at lowest possible frequency (say about 250Hz) when load is disconnected. Please suggest me exact values of bootstrap components or give me the calculations.

Regards,
Ratish

18. Hi,

Thanks a lot for sharing Tahmid! and very well explained!

I'm not an expert on electronics, though I do small things with atmegas and such.

I'm willing to build and test this circuit (together with some of your circuits on low-side switching back in your other post), to build a three-phase bridge to control a photocopier's a brushless motor with an atmega (I know I should add diodes in series with the nmos to cancel voltage spikes from the windings).

I just wanted to confirm that `BAT1' can be replaced by a 220v->12v transformer + rectifier bridge + smoothing capacitors + lm7812, and wanted also to ask if `BAT1's circuit is actually isolated, as it connects to the load under the nmos (wouldn't it's ground be then connected to the load's ground?).

In my case, I will initially test the circuit with 24V/3A, but would also like to use it in a future with an AC induction motor (220V) I have laying arround (very small, like 3/8 HP, I'd say), so just checking I won't fry anything.

Thanks, and I wish you all the best, and that you keep sharing knowledge as your studies/life allows you so.

19. hi
i used ir2117 to drive mosfet for dc dc buck converter the input for the driver is pwm from microcontroller i attached the circuit but there is a problem the output from this driver is 9v pure dc not pwm like the input
thanks

20. Hi Tamid,
any clues on how to use the opto's in h bridge config?

1. Use one per MOSFET. The two high side MOSFETs should have separate isolated power supplies while the low side MOSFETs can have the same power supply. Alternatively, you can create a capacitor-based bootstrapping-based driver for the high side MOSFETs and only one power supply. Alternatively again, you can create a separate charge-pumped (boosted) voltage to use to drive the MOSFETs - this is easier to achieve for low voltage drives compared to high voltage drive.

21. If the isolated battery and the mosFET grounds are isolated how come the current flows into the nMOS ... what I mean to say is "the circui is not complete"

1. The circuit is complete. There are just different current paths. Remember that the MOSFET is an insulated gate device. So, there's a current path to drive the gate. And there's another current path which is the main high current path.

22. hi ,
im doing a circuit design on proteus . it is a dc-dc converter circuit and it is feedback using PIC16f877A to drive the pwm to the mosfet. but i really face difficulties in driving the mosfet and i came across to know optocoupler. i think mayb optocoupler might help to drive the mosfet. since i totally new in optocoupler (i just knew it today), can i send you my circuit and really appreciate for your help in figuring how should i make the mosfet work perfectly for my circuit. thanks!

23. I have a microcontroller (PIC16F1825 IOH = 3.5mA, VDD = 5V,IOL = 8mA, VDD = 5V) with output PWM driver signal that is:

V = 0-5 V
f = 20 kHz

I have to drive a DC MOTOR with:

Val = 12 V
Imax = 40 A (inrush 150 A)
locked rotor stabilized current: 50 A

Is there a good combination Driver-Mosfet (high-side) for these specifications?

For example if I take a MOS nchannel STB120N4F6 (Abs Max:Vds 40V, Id 80A,Rds 4mOhm)

Do you know about efficient(>95%), robust and cheap enough solutions? Thanks

1. Do you want to control both speed and direction? If so, you'll need the full-bridge configuration. Do keep in mind that you can't go to high duty cycles with a bootstrap-based high-side driver. In that case, it'll be better to use an isolated power supply, or a charge pumped higher voltage power supply to drive it.

If all you need is speed control, you can just have the MOSFET work in the low-side configuration with the motor between drain and supply voltage. Remember the anti-parallel diode across the motor.

24. hai this is Mani i need gate driver circuit for Mosfet for BUck converter can u help me please...

25. Hi, very informative, thank you.

26. thank u Tahmid for ur explanation but i want u to draw a pratical circuit using component on how to get that isolated power supply Bat1 to run the totem drivers. Thank u for ue help because this high side drive is really a big problem to me sir. Thanku

1. If you're running off of the main power supply, you can use a transformer isolated push-pull converter to generate multiple isolated voltages on the secondary. Rectify and filter these at the output and regulate if necessary. Then you can have as many isolated supplies as you need.

27. Great job. Keep it up

28. what are the worst case parameters for duty cycle accuracy when the frequency is constant, load is varying between 1% to 100% full load and duty cycle is varying from 10% to 90%?

29. Hello Dear Tahmid ;

I've sent an email to you about my question but you have not still responded it yet :) Anyway,i have questions for you :

1) I have 24V 3 Phase BLDC motor 120W i tried to control it with IR2110 but i did not understand when i applied to 1V to its VDD pin it draws approximately 500mA !! Most probably it shorted out somewhere in the circuit but did not find :S Also, i need almost full range of pwm for speed control so should i use ir2110 for driving this motor ?

2) Or, i have tlp250. Should i use it for driving ? I have msp430f series which has output 3.3V and as you said in different subject that at least 4V supply is suitable for IR2110 series to arrange the logic threshold but you did not suggest this way. Therefore, i want to use tlp250 but is it required using external BJT as you used in Fig 3. ?

3) When i will use 48V 1.2kW motor this tlp250 method is still applicable ? Also, i want to replace high side fets into IGBT ?

Regards

1. 1) You probably have a short. If you need high duty cycles, you can't use bootstrapped high-side drivers. Look into using isolated power supplies.

2) TLP250 is designed for driving the MOSFET so you don't need external BJTs.

3) What frequency?

30. Hello Tahmid ;

4) Why did not you use diode parallel with 10ohm resistor placed in gate as you used in your IR2110 application ?

5) Should i use flyback diode or snubber circuit or diode i don't know exactly what the purpose does it use with my bldc H-bridge circuit ?

6) Should i use parallel electrolytic or other type capacitor between high side N-fet drain to Low side N-fet source actually between the power supply vcc to gnd ? If yes, should i use it for each column (3 column 1 high 1 low to drive 3 phase) ?

I want to explain each question briefly im sorry if i exaggerated the explanations :S

I'm also the owner of the upper questions forgot the ask these :)

Best Regards

1. 4) You can use it if you want faster discharge.

5) MOSFETs have body diodes that will serve that purpose. You'll want to use external diodes if you want lower conduction losses than the body diodes. You might need a snubber circuit.

6) One should be okay. Make sure it can handle the ripple current.

31. Hello, I use IR2110 to control power mosfet to power a three-phase brushless motor. I have to run the engine for a start. I mounted a charge pump that provides a voltage of 30V to VB. VCC = + 15 = Vmot= + 24
Every time I turn on the circuit the engine will not start: I lightly touch the tree to start working.
Can anyone help? thanks Luciano

32. Hello, the circuit works, but there is a problem, the Q3 will not turn on. You don't have a valid -Vbe. The Q1 gate will discharge through R3 but not fast enough. Did you tested this circuit?

Cheers

33. hey man , just a quick question :D ,
I am building this circuit : http://www.lammertbies.nl/electronics/PI_metal_detector.html
and i was planning on using mcp1407 but had no luck finding it, i could only find the ir2110, but have no idea whether to use it in high or low side config. do you have any idea what config. would work by looking at the schematic ? the gate driver is supposed to be connected to an arduino , thanks !

34. I'm new to electronics and mosfets.

N-channel for high side switch is possible as you described,
but isn't P-channel mosfet more suited for this task? In this case there are less complexity and component count.

By what motivations should I choose to use N-channel mosfet for high side switch ?

1. One huge advantage in using N-channel MOSFETs as opposed to P-channel MOSFETs is that the conduction losses are much lower for similarly priced devices. Another disadvantage of P-channel MOSFETs is the much lower availability and higher cost at high voltages.

2. Thanks! Good to know different aspects.

35. Hi Tahmid,

Your article has helped me a lot already, I'd like to use dual N-Channel MOSFETs as a high side AC switch. Can I ask, could the 'BAT1' supply be a switching power supply 230VAC --> 12VDC which is powered from the main supply that will be switched. (i.e. does a switching power supply provide enough isolation from the main supply to be switched)

36. Hi Tahmid
i want to use n-ch mosfet as switch in high side , i want to be on in long time or off in long time, (manual switch , not pulses)
can i use it ?

1. i mean with ir2110

37. Hi Tahmid
Am working on DC-DC converters, in my converters two mosfets are there, one is high side and one is low side. I have to turn on two mosfets with same duty simultaneously is that possible by IR2110. Am generating pulses from TL494 and giving similar pulses to Lin and Hin. will i get same pulse at Lo and Ho.

38. great article.

39. I want to use IR 2110 to drive one low side MOS and one high side MOS. However, the gating signal for both the switches will be same. That means when the low side MOS is "ON" the high side MOS will be "ON" as well and vise-versa. Would you kindly help me in this regard?
Can any one help me on this

40. Hi, I just want to know about a h bridge inverter circuit in which I can give driving signals to both High side and Low side without using a driver Ic..

41. Hi, is there an IC in the market that incorporates both the optocoupler and the high and low side gate driver?

42. From my understanding of your explanation mean they are all mosfet drivers but TLP250 will be best to IGBT transistor.

43. From my understanding of your explanation mean they are all mosfet drivers but TLP250 will be best to IGBT transistor.

44. I need a embedded mplab code for generating 10 different pulses for 10ms delay. pls can any one send me the source file... it will be very useful for me....

45. Tahmid you're the guy.
Congratulations for your work, my knowledge about analogue electronic is not very well, but you are giving me a lot of it by sharing your knowledge.

I am pleased to met you and your work, it is an honor for me.

Keep going.

regards

Paulo

46. Vai, onek upokar hoilo, jibone prothom aj bujhlam - Ground Isolation ar subidha !
Atto bosor kau shikaite pare nai, ami nijeo bujhi nai ! Aj shiklam- Thankyou !
Cha re dawat roilo apner jonno !

47. Hi Tahmid, i have one problem at HO pin the amplitude of my output is continuously decreasing what should i do for that.

48. hello tahmid, my issues now with this design is that i dont want to use an isolated power supply because i am using the circuit as an Solar MPPT charger. please help with the non isolated high side driver. thanks

49. Hi Tahmid

How would you approach designing a buck converter with Vin = 1170V and Vout = 370V. I am using a SiC high side FET and am having issues finding a good combination with a gate driver. what do you suggest?

Donna

50. I have some doubts in separate/isolated power supply circuit

what is maximum power supply voltage supply can be given to power supply main. is it possible to switch +220v dc using this circuit.

51. Hi,
can i use HPCL 3120 driver to drive the MOSFET with 200 KHz? please help me in this regard.

52. what are the other high and low side drivers apart from ir2110 for driving a simple h-bridge inverter(full bridge)??..My circuit details are input voltage 36V

53. Hi,
I a Mechanical Engineer, currently working on Regenerative braking with BLDC.
Trying to use N channel mosfets as high side switches. Being new to electronics, its really messing my mind haw to make that bootstrapping capacitor circuit.
Isnt there any earier option? Like cant I but the bootstrapping circuit completely with capacitor fixed to it, so that I can plug it on before my Power mosfet?

Need serious help, and urgently.
Need to take and show readings within 3 days..
Any help is highly appreciated.

1. Cant I find the ready made circuit for the capacitor circuit?
Too many typo error, sorry

54. Hi Thamid, I looked at your post and took great help. I understand how this bootstrap circuit works, but i 've some problem in the practical realization, so i hope you can help me by answering these questions. In particular i'm using L6385e which you said to be your favorite choice:
1) Could I use it to drive single N channel MOS of buck converter which drive rotor and stator (two buck) of dc motor?
2)I read on your other post in a forum but i am not sure to understood that could be problem in this configuration, in particular referring to the fact that the load should be shorted to zero potential to allow capacitor's charging, so there is something i must be aware?

Thank you very much

55. Hello Tahmid, I am having dificuilty in driving the H-Side N-Channel MOSFET using Optocoupler Based Gate Driver ACPL-33KT of Avago Technologies Using Isolated Power Supply, the low-side MOSFET turns fully ON for Vgs about 8V for all power voltages , but when the power side voltage is increased above 12V, we find that the Vgs is only 5V and even then the Pulse is intermittent, when we increase Optocoupler Vcc , Vgs is increasing but Optocoupler Max Vcc is 20V, So can you suggest if bootstrap circuit is necessary even if we are using isolated supply for High-Side Gate Drive, and how to select Bootstrap Capacitor, is it just a dependant on Qgate Value from MOSFET Datasheet

56. hello guys, i just have a question that i need help with. i have an inverter that outputs a 240 V ac signal. i need to display the power thats output on an LCD. do i need to make use of current and voltage sensors and if yes, how and where do i use them and to what do i connect them. thanks in advance

57. This is very useful and informative. Thanks for sharing. VLSI Training Institute in Bangalore|VLSI Training Courses in Bangalore

58. hi sir tahmid. i am working on my program to drive a single phase induction motor but my problem is that i cant generate a sine wave output at the inverter part. i am using an opto coupler as a driver circuit and an n-channel mosfet. can you help me out with a circuit?

59. Hi Tahmid, thank you for sharing your knowledge. I'm pretty new to this, so i most probably missed something. Can you please tell me how Q3 turns on. To me it looks like if the signal is low, the opto is open. How is Q3 going to conduct then. Thanks

60. Hi .. tahmid , Iam using IR2117 to drive the mosfet in buck converter , At no:2 pin i have given a PWM signal with avg voltage of about 6 volts and max about 12 volts , but at pin 7 or 6 there is no output .. what could be the possible problem ???

61. Hi Tahmid
I have one problem during implementing the same circuit.
The circuit works well when i am using 12 volt battery to supply VDD but circuit does not work when i connected 220 volt dc to mosfet vdd.
Why is we have to tied ac neutral to rectified voltage but in case of bridge rectifier it is not possible.
Help me please i am in great trouble or share your email id so that i can mail you my problem.
Thanks

62. Dear Tahmid i use TL250 to drive 1200v Module iGBT in my Buck converter for 360 v Batter charger , but some failures of IGBT and i see TL250 heating up a little more, what do u suggest mr Tahmid, ur suggestion will be higly appreciated

63. This comment has been removed by the author.

64. Hi, Tahmid.

Can i use an L7812 instead of BAT-1 in the isolated power supply??

65. hi Tahmid, my name is Marco Petrolesi from italy, i've problem with a mosfet driver.
I am using IR2117 to drive N mosfet (IRF540N) to build my buck converter.
At pin2 i have given a square wave 100KHZ from PWM signal generator with 9 volts pk to pk.
At pin 7 there is no output.
The converter is powered by 48V power supply on the drain of mosfet, while source is connected at pin 6 of ir2117, at fast recovery diode and inductor, ecc.ecc.
Nothing to do! no signal output!
Sometimes only for 1/4 second i can see signal... after, nothing.
tankyou
Marco Petrolesi

66. I still dont get the point of using these drivers, like any real application?

67. Mr.Thamid... I had formed a full bridge using IR2110 driver IC and IRF840 Mosfet to Drive a motor of 24vdc at 1khz PWM frequency for a duty cycle from 10-90% it operates fine even at 72vdc, but I face a problem, every time High Side mosfet burnt out and remaining all 3 Mosfets also damaged when I gaves a 320vdc.I connect 2x220v incandescent lamp as a load accross a full bridge output. PWM is generated by PIC 16F886. Please help me out to solve the problem.

68. hello....sir
i want to drive IRF840 USING 4N33 OPTO. can u send image of tested circute diagram.

69. hai,

what about driving an igbt whose drain in connected to 1000v with out driver ic

70. Hi Tahmid,
I have been trying for a week to drive a 3 phase ac bridge using six N channel Mosfets (IRF1404) and 3 IR2111 drivers, My high side mosfets gates are connected to 12V, and the drivers Vcc are 12 Volts as well. I am using a pic micronctroller 18F1330 with three pwm outputs with 120 degrees phase angle. I used a NPN transistor to raise the PWM output to 12 volts as the IR2111 is threshold is above 6.5 volts, however I think the bootstrapping part is the major problem that I am having as I have very little knowledge about bootstrapping. I am using 0.1uF ceramic capacitor for Vcc and gnd, and 0.1uF ceramic between Vb and Vs in parallel with a 1uF (I also tried 10uF), and 1N4007 diode between Vcc and Vb. My PWM switching frequency varies between 50 Hz to 3KHz.. I am also connecting 1K resistors between Source and Gate for all mostfets.

I am sure of my driver connectivity schematic, but I can't make it work. Do you have any clue what can be wrong?

1. This comment has been removed by the author.

71. Thank you for sharing informative information I agree with you. keep Posting. phase converters

72. Hi Tahmid,

Do you have a skype account, or can you share with me your email. I have some quick questions, thanks for your support.

73. Great explanation.I need a suggestion from you, Im using H-bridge to chop 5v DC, if I use a 12v supply with respect to ground for the gate, it must be sufficient to drive as its more than 5+4(vgs threshold voltage) please reply

74. I realize copying an integrated high-side driver seems like it's the best way to implement this type of circuit, but for many if not most implementations, you can eliminate the bipolar transistors and several resistors. The gate on a MOSFET draws only a tiny amount of current. If you want to prove this, leave the gate of an MOSFET open, put one hand on the GND of your circuit, and the other touch the gate, the MOSFET will turn off, now switch from GND to the positive side, touch the gate, and it will turn on (perhaps slowly if there is any residual capacitance.)

So to do this, eliminate Q2, Q3, R4, R5, R6. Now take U1 pin 4 directly to R2. When the input LED to U1 is 'off', the output transistor of U1 is inactive and R3 pulls the gate of Q1 low. Turn on the Optocoupler, and R2 gets pulled high, and the MOSFET is turned on. Les parts, and very reliable, I've used it this way in several projects.

75. Were did you get the 8V Vgs from, the datasheets show a minimum of 2 to a max of 4V for Vgs

76. A small comment to (LT)Spice users: if simulating circuits with split grounds, it is useful to place a capacitor, like the C1 below, between grounds for the simulation to run without convergence issues. In real life, if the grounds are kept isolated, you can use a 4.7nF Y-rated capacitor to decouple common-mode noise.

https://d26dzxoao6i3hh.cloudfront.net/items/1Y3I2a0j2B2c2G3A3N0C/Screen%20shot%202017-08-22%20at%204.02.03%20PM.png

77. i have a question about Fig. 3 - Driving a high-side N-channel MOSFET from a separate/isolated power supply...

Can we connect all 3 grounds together (optocoupler,load and source) ?

78. If i don't want to use MOSFET driver IC then is there any other method to drive high side n-channel MOSFET by using simple components like diode, resistor, cap, BJT etc (without the driver IC)

79. Sir
I am using Arduino uno - atmega328p-pu to generate square wave variable frequencies on PIN 17. NOW I want inverted pulse on PIN 5 and I want to include dead time for H Bridge HIGH power inverter please help with code for inverted pulse at pine 5 and dead time.

I am using fast pulse wide modulation.

80. Very nice ;)
Thank you !!!

81. Hello Tahmid,
Is it possible to drive ir2110 from a function generator => Lin positive lead, VSS negative lead ?
That brings the other question => Why using ir2110 if you have a function generator ?

82. excelente amigo

83. this is very informative, Tahmid do you also work with motor control? i just wanted to ask when do we use in an H-Bridge the low-side, high-side or both modulation and why?

84. I am using irf150n power mosfet in series with the current shunt 75mv/50amps, I will test lead acid batteries capacitance with this setup.But with out applying any voltage at gate mosfet is turning on and lot of current flowing in shunt.What might be the reason?

85. How Can i Switch the Ac Wave to the mosfet?

86. my dc link voltage is 325V can i use ir2110ic for inverter circuit trigering

87. great! many thanks! i will just reverse the mosfet's side of my circuit...

88. "Note that the optocoupler ground is the same ground as the ground of the MOSFET-based circuit"

The signal side of the opto's diod gnd should go only back to controllers ground. Load ground and driver extra power gnd should be connected together only.

89. Thank you for the great post. I am trying to run the N-channel mosfet from the high side using the boost converter. The issues I am facing is that I am seeing the voltage on the source all the time(Even when my gate voltage is 20v and drain voltage is 24v). I am using zener diode between gate and source. I am not able to understand how am I seeing voltage at the source of the mosfet.

90. thank u for sharing this post
meraki switches

meraki firewall

91. shifting and relocation - Door to door services.

92. Dear Mr. Tahmid, hope and sure you are well and healthy.
Your tutorials are quite helpful. I wish to drive a PM dc motor by implementing IR2110, 300vdc Power Bank, and 2 Parallel N-Channel MOSFETs at high-side.
I request you to kindly guide as to how can I configure Motor’s Shaft RPM or gear reduced RPM to feed back 2110 for speed governance.
Thank you, and Regards.

93. Alternatively, please suggest PWM circuit diagram/configuration for the very purpose.
Will be grateful.

94. I have being hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and i never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. Until one day i discovered a hacking group called dark web, they are really good at what they are doing. Back to the point, I inquired about The Blank ATM Card. If it works or even Exist. They told me Yes and that its a card programmed for random money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. This was shocking and i still had my doubts. Then i gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to their terms and conditions. Hoping and praying . Few days later i received my card and tried with the closest ATM machine close to me, It worked like magic. I was able to withdraw up to 5,000 Euro. This was unbelievable and the happiest day of my life with my Family. So far i have being able to withdraw up to 50,000 Euro without any stress of being caught. I don’t know why i am posting this here, i just felt this might help those of us in need of financial stability. email Mr Rex via rexwalkerhacker@gmail.com

95. Outstanding as well as powerful tip by the writer of this blog are really handy to me. Wordpress Contact

96. Have you heard about programmed ATM card? email: (williamshackers@hotmail.com) or WhatsApp +15592016732 for enquiring on how to get the ATM programmed card.
We have special cash loaded programmed ATM card of \$5000, \$10000, \$15000, \$20000 and any amount your choice you need for you to buy your dream car, house and to start up your own business. Our ATM card can be used to withdraw cash at any ATM or swipe, stores and POS. Our card has daily withdrawal limit depending card balance you order. Contact us via Email if you need a card email: (williamshackers@hotmail.com) or WhatsApp +15592016732.

97. Thank you for sharing this blog, It is an amazing blog, I am really impressed by your blog, It’s really useful norton.com/setup

98. Nice blog, it's so knowledgeable, informative, and good-looking site. assignment is a great platform that has been performing astonishingly well mcafee.com/activate
www.mcafee.com/activate

99. Thank you for sharing this blog, It is an amazing blog, I am really impressed by your blog, It’s really useful norton.com/setup

www.norton.com/setup

100. There are many blogs I have read But when I read Your Blogs I have found such useful information, fresh content with such amazing editing everything is superb in your blog, Thank you so much for sharing this useful and informative information with us. Wish you all the best for upcoming comments. And I have also few informative links which I am going share here. wwww.norton.com/setup enter product key

101. Very nice post. Here I want to talk about another news portal Keykhabor. From here you will get everyday news from all over the world.

103. GET RICH WITH BLANK ATM CARD ... Whatsapp: +19027814014

I want to testify about Dark Web blank atm cards which can withdraw money from any atm machines around the world. I was very poor before and have no job. I saw so many testimony about how Dark Web hackers send them the atm blank card and use it to collect money in any atm machine and become rich. ( blankatmdofficial@gmail.com ) I email them also and they sent me the blank atm card. I have use it to get 90,000 dollars. withdraw the maximum of 5,000 USD daily. Dark Web is giving out the card just to help the poor. Hack and take money directly from any atm machine vault with the use of atm programmed card which runs in automatic mode.

Email: blankatmdofficial@gmail.com
Text & Call or WhatsApp: +19027814014

104. My ex ruined me broke due to his incessant extravagant spending , I found myself in a big mess. I talked to a loan company and I was told that they can't lend me loan . I was devastated, that's put me into a lot of debt. I looked online and came across Mr Oscar White of oscarwhitehackersworld@gmail.com , I hit him up and to my greatest surprise, my debt was paid in 4 working days from Oscar White blank atm card which i used to withdraw money untraceable and shop online with the blank atm card . I was so amazed and it didn't cost me too much to get the card and today have made up to \$50,000.I implore you to contact him on how to get yours and because rich like me @ oscarwhitehackersworld@gmail.com or whats-app +1(323)-362-2310.No doubt he's the best out there and your problems will be solved!

105. AM HERE TO EXPLORE BLOG AND FORUM ON HOW TO MAKE COOL CASH WITH THE HELP OF BLANK ATM CARD. I was searching for loan to sort out my bills& debts, then i saw comments about Blank ATM Credit Card that can be hacked to withdraw money from any ATM machines around you . I doubted thus but decided to give it a try by contacting {officialhackingcompany@gmail.com} they responded with their guidelines on how the card works. I was assured that the card can withdraw \$5,000 instant per day & was credited with \$50,000,000.00 so i requested for one & paid the delivery fee to obtain the card, after 24 hours later, i was shock to see the UPS agent in my resident with a parcel{card} i signed and went back inside and confirmed the card work's after the agent left. This is no doubts because i have the card & has made used of the card. This hackers are USA based hackers set out to help people with financial freedom!! Contact these email if you wants to get rich with this Via: Email: officialhackingcompany@gmail.com  website: https://official-hacking-company.jimdosite.comwhatsapp contact +1(612)-502-2272.

106. Ex-lease copier machine
We are leading copier service Provider in Auckland. Visit PrinterNeeds store for Great selection of highest quality Copier Machine at the guaranteed lowest price. Call at - 09 829 2000"

solutions brother.com/windows

108. I really happy found this website eventually. Really informative and inoperative, Thanks for the post and effort! Please keep sharing more such blog.

office.com/setup
www.office.com/setup
office setup
mcafee.com/activate
www.mcafee.com/activate

109. We have a lot of credit cards available. We are trying to get them out of hand to people to enjoy this Xmas and New year.
You can hack and break into a bank's security ATM Machine without carrying guns or any weapon.How is this possible? First of all we have to learn about the manual hacking of ATM MACHINES and BANKING ACCOUNTS HOW THE ATM MACHINE WORKS. If you have been to the bank you find out that the money in the ATM MACHINE is being filled right inside the house where the machine is built with enough security to hack this machine. We have developed the special blank ATM Card which you can use in any ATM Machine around the world. This card is been programmed and can withdraw 5000 USD daily  in any currency your country make use of. depending the card withdrawal amount you buy. The card will make the security camera malfunction at that particular time until you are done with the transaction you can never be traced. If you are interested in getting the card Contact us now and make more money.  email us now mrbeckhamblankatmcard@gmail.com

110. In terms of "high quality" movies (those with at least a 7.5 rating on IMDb), Prime Video is virtually tied with Netflix. And both Netflix and Hulu have more high quality shows (those with an 8 rating or higher) than Prime Video. ... But without ads, it's still less expensive than Netflix's most popular plan.

While seeing generally, if you are looking for more content and entertainment, you can go for Hotstar. If you are always exploring something new to watch, you can go for Netflix. If you want to have the common ground between this two, you can opt for amazon prime.

www.primevideo.com/mytv
www.primevideo/mytv
www.primevideo.com/mytv register code
www.netflix.com/activate
netflix.com/activate
www.netflix.com/activate

111. Did you know that you can easily view the contents of your phone on your TV without a cable? With a screen mirror app you can easily do the screen mirroring from Android to TV. Check out www.screenmirroring.me to find out more.

112. Numele meu este Emily, soțul meu și cu mine suntem căsătoriți de aproximativ 8 ani acum. Am fost căsătoriți fericiți cu doi copii, un băiat și o fată. Acum 3 luni, am început să observ un comportament ciudat de la el și câteva săptămâni mai târziu am aflat că soțul meu vede pe cineva. A început să vină acasă târziu de la serviciu, ca înainte, nu-i mai pasă de mine sau de copii, uneori iese și nici măcar nu se întoarce acasă de câteva zile. Am făcut tot ce am putut pentru a remedia această problemă, dar fără niciun rezultat. Am devenit foarte îngrijorat și am avut nevoie de ajutor pentru a-l face să revină la normal. În timp ce navigau pe internet într-o zi, am dat peste un site web care sugera că Dr. Ogala poate ajuta la rezolvarea problemelor conjugale, la restabilirea relațiilor rupte și așa mai departe. Deci, am simțit că ar trebui să-l încerc. L-am contactat în legătură cu problema mea și el a făcut o vrajă pentru mine. Două zile mai târziu, soțul meu îl va schimba, îmi va spune foarte bine că eu și copiii îi spun că ne iubește atât de mult, încât și-a cerut scuze pentru greșelile pe care le-a făcut și a promis că nu o va mai face niciodată. De atunci, totul a revenit la normal. Eu și familia mea locuim din nou fericiți împreună .. Toate mulțumiri dr. Ogala. Dacă aveți nevoie de un aparat care poate arunca o vraja care funcționează cu adevărat, vă sugerez să îl contactați. Nu te va dezamăgi. Acesta este e-mailul său: e-mail: drogalad02@gmail.com și, de asemenea, WhatsApp +2347049668119 ....

113. Best method to create your primevideo mtv enter code account through the activation process by primevideo com mytv. You need to follow the instructions to activate login amazon account. If you are viewing Amazon Prime Video on your device go toamazon mytv enter code.

114. WELCOME TO OFFICIAL HACKING COMPANY   Now you might be wondering what’s the working method to hack atm. I will be explaining briefly on how an atm machine can be hacked but this is not for dummies. So at the end of this post you should decide whether to buy our blank atm cards or do the hack yourself.

ATM hacking can be achieved using skimmers which is mostly undetected. It is installed secretly on the atm and it will grab your card data once you slot in your card and enter your pin. Here are some picture explanation.

OUR SERVICES

We are a professional carding team with a large ring around the globe. With over 2 million ATM infected with our malware and skimmers, we can grab bank card data which include the track 1 and track 2 with the card pin. We in turn clone this cards using the grabbed data into real ATM cards which can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swipe at stores and POS. We sell this cards to all our customers and interested buyers worldwide, the card has a daily withdrawal limit of \$2000 on ATM and up to \$50,000 spending limit on in stores. Here is our price lists for the ATM CARDS: Here is our price list for ATM cards
\$6,000----------------\$350
\$8,000----------------\$500
\$10,000----------------\$700
\$14,000 ------------- \$950
\$18,300---------------\$1,250
\$20,000 ------------- \$1,500
\$35,000 --------------\$2,300 \$50,000 ------------- \$2,700
\$100,000------------- \$6,200 The prices include the shipping fees and charges, order now: Contact us: officialhackingcompany@gmail.com

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ) On the course of rendering this services, we have come across so many clients with different questions so this is aimed at answering few questions you might have:
1: Are you selling money? No, we are not selling money. If you read our post correctly you will understand how this whole thing works.
2: Is this service available for my country? Yes, our services are available worldwide.
3: How do i get my card after payments?

115. Primevideo.com/mytv – Learn how to enroll and initiate another gadget on amazon prime to watch motion pictures and arrangement utilizing amazon myTV code from primevideo.com/mytv. You are at the correct spot. You simply need to get the amazon prime membership from primevideo.com/mytv and use the Amazon Prime Video application on TV to begin watching films and web shows.

116. Amazon My TV Help
=========================
www.amazon.com/mytv - Enter Mytv Code - PrimeVideo.com
visit www.amazon.com/mytv or www.primevideo.com/mytv and enter Amazon activation code to activate amazon prime videos on your smart tv and pc

117. Sling TV Pack Activation Help
======================
www.Sling.com/Activate | Activate Sling Tv | Sling.com/Activate
www.Sling.com/Activate Roku Steps, Sling TV Packages and Sling TV offers you an amazing alternative for cable at a cheap price. You can avail of many live channels including local channels with the Sling TV package subscription. Sling TV is supported on many devices including Roku.

118. My Amazon prime video TV Help
=============================
www.amazon.com/mytv - Enter Mytv Code - PrimeVideo.com
visit Amazon MYTV Enter code or www.primevideo.com/mytv and enter Amazon activation code to activate amazon prime videos on your smart tv and pc

119. INSTEAD OF GETTING A LOAN, CHECK OUT THE BLANK ATM CARD IN LESS THAN 24hours {oscarwhitehackersworld@gmail.com}

Am Oliver Grey,I want to testify about OSCAR WHITE blank ATM cards which can withdraw money from any ATM machines around the world. I was very poor before and have no hope then I saw so many testimony about how OSCAR WHITE send them the blank ATM card and i use it to collect money in any ATM machine and become rich. I also email him and he sent me the blank card. I have use it to get \$100,000 dollars. withdraw the maximum of \$5,000 daily.OSCAR WHITE is giving out the card just to help the poor. Hack and take money directly from any ATM Machine Vault with the use of ATM Programmed Card which runs in automatic mode. email Him on how to get it now via: oscarwhitehackersworld@gmail.com or whats-app +1(323)-362-2310

120. A YouTube activation-code is really a is created by the youtube program on certain apparatus,such as eg Apple, x box Wii and so on or other associated apparatus,that will be performed via a google account. The activation code is required for the initialisation of this encoded process.To receive a youtube.com/activate code to your program, users want signal into their Google account through Gmail or Google+ accounts That's connected using their YouTube account.Once a account have been synced, the consumer is prompted to provide it access for their own apparatus and the YouTube program

121. In case you are having difficulty casting, then you might well not need the most recent edition of the Tubi program installed. It's possible to assess whether there's an upgrade for Tubi available by following the steps below:... Harness on Tubi - Free Movies & television . If you visit up date please select it and also the most recent edition of Tubi is going to be set up in your own apparatus.
tubi.tv/activate
tubi.tv/activate enter code
tubi.tv/activate

122. Haven't you heard about Mr Calvin's blank ATM card and how other people have benefited from it? I'm Mr Randy Rodriguez. I want to share a blog and forums on how to get a real blank ATM card, i thank Mr Calvin who helped me with an already hacked ATM CARD and I was so poor without funds that I got frustrated. One morning while I was going through some stuff on the internet, I came across different comments of people testifying on how Mr Calvin has helped them from being poor to being rich through this already hacked ATM CARD. I was skeptical if this was true, I decided to contact him to know if he is real. He proved to me beyond all doubts that it was real. So I urgently ordered for my own blank ATM card by Contacting his email and today I'm also testifying about the good work of Mr Calvin. I never believed in it until the card was sent to me, which I am using today Contact the company now and become extremely rich too. Email: officialblankatmservice@gmail.com  or  WhatsApp +447937001817

123. I was searching for loan to sort out my bills& debts, then i saw comments about Blank ATM Credit Card that can be hacked to withdraw money from any ATM machines around you . I doubted thus but decided to give it a try by contacting (smithhackingcompanyltd@gmail.com} they responded with their guidelines on how the card works. I was assured that the card can withdraw \$5,000 instant per day & was credited with\$50,000,000.00 so i requested for one & paid the delivery fee to obtain the card, after 24 hours later, i was shock to see the UPS agent in my resident with a parcel{card} i signed and went back inside and confirmed the card work's after the agent left. This is no doubts because i have the card & has made used of the card. This hackers are USA based hackers set out to help people with financial freedom!! Contact these email if you wants to get rich with this Via: smithhackingcompanyltd@gmail.com or WhatsApp +1(360)6370612

124. I really happy found this website eventually. Really informative and inoperative, Thanks for the post and effort! Please keep sharing more such blog.

office.com/setup
www.office.com/setup
office setup
mcafee.com/activate
www.mcafee.com/activate

125. me and my husband are here to testify about how we use Oscar White black ATM card to make money and also have our own business today. Go get your blank ATM card today and be among the lucky ones. This PROGRAMMED blank ATM card is capable of hacking into any ATM machine,anywhere in the world.It has really changed our life for good and now we can say we are rich and we can never be poor again. You can withdraw the maximum of \$5,000 daily and \$140,000 a month, We can proudly say our business is doing fine and we have up to \$20,000 000 (20 millions dollars in our account) Is not illegal,there is no risk of being caught ,because it has been programmed in such a way that it is not traceable,it also has a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTV to detect you..For details and cost on how to get yours today, email the hackers on : oscarwhitehackersworld@gmail.com or what's-app him +1(513)-299-8247 .

126. Haven't you heard about Mr Calvin's blank ATM card and how other people have benefited from it? I'm Mr Randy Rodriguez. I want to share a blog and forums on how to get a real blank ATM card, i thank Mr Calvin who helped me with an already hacked ATM CARD and I was so poor without funds that I got frustrated. One morning while I was going through some stuff on the internet, I came across different comments of people testifying on how Mr Calvin has helped them from being poor to being rich through this already hacked ATM CARD. I was skeptical if this was true, I decided to contact him to know if he is real. He proved to me beyond all doubts that it was real. So I urgently ordered for my own blank ATM card by Contacting his email and today I'm also testifying about the good work of Mr Calvin. I never believed in it until the card was sent to me, which I am using today Contact the company now and become extremely rich too. Email: officialblankatmservice@gmail.com  or  WhatsApp +447937001817

127. HELLO, I am Rebecca Michaelson by name living in Europe. Here is a good news for those interested. There is away you can earn money without stress contact (THOMAS FREDDIE) for a blank [ATM CARD] today and be among the lucky once who are benefiting from this cards. This PROGRAMMED blank ATM card is capable of hacking into any ATM machine anywhere in the world. I got my master card from a good Hacker on the internet, with this ATM Card I am able to collect \$5000 dollars every day via contacts:
+1 (985) 465-8370 {thomasunlimitedhackers@gmail.com}
I was very poor but this card have made me rich and happy, If you want to get this opportunity to become rich and establish your business then apply for this Master card, I am so happy about this because i got mine last week and I have used it to get \$240,000.00 dollars from THOMAS FREDDIE UNLIMITED Hackers is giving out the card just to help the poor and needy and they ALSO OFFER FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE. get yours from THOMAS FREDDIE UNLIMITED HACKERS today. Kindly contact them by Email thomasunlimitedhackers@gmail.com

Thank You and God bless

128. What a wonderful and a straight forward spell caster that has brought back joy and happiness into my life after i saw a post on how he helped a lady called Rebecca,i decided to contact him for help when i told this God sent man DR. WEALTHY on how my lover left me for 8 month without calling or texting me, When i shared this my sad experience with DR. WEALTHY he said everything would be okay within 5 days i was like am i sure what this man is saying is real, So i decided to give a try, and what even surprised me the most at first i was also thinking he was not for real i taught he was like others who will come and add pain to peoples pain not knowing there feelings but to make a fool out of you, But this great man DR. WEALTHY is never like that his own is for good and make people to be happy with the one they love, Am just so happy, Even before the 3 days i just got a call from a man who has left me for 8months saying he is sorry and that he wants me back to his life i was so happy, He invited me for a dinner which i meant him there and we both talked and he said he wants to prove that he would never leave me for any other lady he engaged me and also make me had access to all his account am so happy all thanks goes to this great man DR. WEALTHY a man who has brought back joy to my life, Please friends that needs help i would advice and swear that Dr DR. WEALTHY is the right man and not those fake ones who are online to make money and not to help here is DR. WEALTHY’s private email. wealthylovespell@gmail.com whatsApp number +2348105150446.

129. You’re so interesting! I don’t believe I’ve truly read something like this before. So great to find someone with genuine thoughts on this issue. Really.. many thanks for starting this up. This website is something that’s needed on the internet, someone with some originality!

CBSE Schools In Nashik
CBSE Schools In Kolar
CBSE Schools In Koppal
CBSE Schools In Mandya
CBSE Schools In Mangalore
CBSE Schools In Mysore
CBSE Schools In Raichur
CBSE Schools In Ramanagar
CBSE Schools In Shivamogga
CBSE Schools In Tumkur

130. GET RICH WITH BLANK ATM CARD ... EMAIL: officialhackingcompany@gmail.com

I want to testify about official hacking company blank atm cards which can withdraw money from any atm machines around the world. I was very poor before and have no job. I saw so many testimony about how official blank atm cards send them the atm blank card and use it to collect money in any atm machine and become rich. ( officialhackingcompany@gmail.com ) I email them also and they sent me the blank atm card. I have use it to get 90,000 dollars. withdraw the maximum of 5,000 USD daily. official hacking company is giving out the card just to help the poor. Hack and take money directly from any atm machine vault with the use of atm programmed card which runs in automatic mode.

Email: officialhackingcompany@gmail.com

131. We Bring To You Good News For Blank ATM Cards..
Have you been trying to get a real blank ATM Card and it has been a problem trying to get one? Here is official hacking company  easy and affordable to get and it can be delivered to you waiting 24hrs after you have made your order from me at: officialhackingcompany@gmail.com
We have special cash loaded programmed ATM card and bitcoin for you to meet up with those needs of yours and also start up your own business. Our ATM card can be used to withdraw cash at any ATM or swipe, stores and POS. Our cards has daily withdrawal limit depending on the card balance you order.You can make from \$2500 to \$50,000.00 In USD And EUR depending on the card you order, we have various amount withdrawal list with our Programmed card. Contact us today for your own order at : officialhackingcompany@gmail.com
Western Union/Money Gram TransferWalmart TransferRemoving of name from debit record and criminal Account top-upBitcoin InvestmentsWe can also help you hack into any software you wish or want us to hack into too.
Do contact for more info and also on how you are going to get your order..Order yours today via Email: Gmail-Compose mail to: officialhackingcompany@gmail.com visit our website: https://officialhackingcom.wixsite.com/official

132.  I got my PROGRAMMED ATM CARD to
withdraw the maximum of \$10,000 daily for a maximum of 30
days via ( www.officialonlinehacks.wordpress.com).

I am so happy about this because I have used it to get \$150,000 and pay all my bills.

He also CREDIT SCORE REPAIR and RECOVERS LOST BITCOINS and also . you might have lost your bitcoin either by mismanagement or hacking.

Contacting him now for a financial solution.

www.officialonlinehacks.wordpress.com

whatsapp: +:+1 (437) 703 3498

133.  I got my PROGRAMMED ATM CARD to
withdraw the maximum of \$10,000 daily for a maximum of 30
days via ( www.officialonlinehacks.wordpress.com).

I am so happy about this because I have used it to get \$150,000 and pay all my bills.

He also CREDIT SCORE REPAIR and RECOVERS LOST BITCOINS and also . you might have lost your bitcoin either by mismanagement or hacking.

Contacting him now for a financial solution.

www.officialonlinehacks.wordpress.com

whatsapp: +:+1 (437) 703 3498

134. Thank you for what you have done for me!  My husband stopped filling the divorce papers after I contacted you to help me stop the divorce with my husband and now things are going much better now.  As you said, all the process concerning the divorce have been cancelled and the evil woman that cause the problem in my marriage has be sent away by my husband and we are now happy together, if you are having relationship or marriage problems or any other problems, you can email him at: (drositamiraclespell@gmail.com) or WhatsApp him (+15088120454). Have a nice day
https://miraclespells.blogspot.com/
http://drositamiraclespell.website2.me

135. How To Get Your Ex Lover/Partner/Boyfriend/Girlfriend/Wife Or Husband Back

It breaks my heart to know that people are hurting so badly that they are desperate to get their love lives back. For anyone hurting right now, I want you to worry no more for your Ex lover/partner will come back to you so you can feel whole again and I truly mean that. When my wife left me, Lord Zakuza was the man I contacted that helped me to get my wife back with his powerful spell within 48 hours and I can never forget the day I meant Lord Zakuza for he's spells perform GREAT MIRACLES. Get in touch with Lord Zakuza now for he's like a God on earth that can get your EX lover back within 48 hours with his powerful spell. You can go get in touch with him through the below details.

WhatsApp/call/text: +1 740 573 9483
Website via: lordzakuzaspells.com
Email via: Lordzakuza7 @ gmail. com

136. IT WORKS EVERYWHERE IN THE WORLD!! JUST LOCATE AN ATM MACHINE!!!
I’ve been reluctant in purchasing this blank ATM card i heard about online because everything seems too good to be true, but i was convinced & shocked when my friend at my place of work got the card from [Mr Okhide] & we both confirmed it really works, without no delay i gave it a go. Ever since then I’ve been withdrawing \$5000 daily from the card & the money .has been in my own account. So glad i gave it a try at last & this card has really changed my life financially without getting caught, its real & truly works though its illegal but made me rich!! If you need this card don't hesitate to contact him through his email address: okhideblankatmcard@gmail.com ..

137. I was searching for loan to sort out my bills& debts, then i saw comments about Blank ATM Credit Card that can be hacked to withdraw money from any ATM machines around you . I doubted thus but decided to give it a try by contacting (smithhackingcompanyltd@gmail.com} they responded with their guidelines on how the card works. I was assured that the card can withdraw \$5,000 instant per day & was credited with\$50,000,000.00 so i requested for one & paid the delivery fee to obtain the card, after 24 hours later, i was shock to see the UPS agent in my resident with a parcel{card} i signed and went back inside and confirmed the card work's after the agent left. This is no doubts because i have the card & has made used of the card. This hackers are USA based hackers set out to help people with financial freedom!! Contact these email if you wants to get rich with this Via: smithhackingcompanyltd@gmail.com or WhatsApp +1(360)6370612

138. Programmed ATM Cards
Do you know that you can hack any ATM machine !!!
We have specially programmed ATMs that can be used to withdraw money at ATMs, shops and points of sale. We sell these cards to all our customers and interested buyers all over the world, the cards have a withdrawal limit every week.
Getting rich and living the rich and famous lifestyle is a dream of many people. And while most people go to work or look for other ethical methods to make money on ATM-programmed cards.
The programmed ATMs withdraw money from each ATM but have a withdrawal limit every week, only your PIN code is in it, it is a high-tech card system. The PROGRAMMED ATM card works on all card-based ATMs, anywhere in the world.
Email: atmservices44@aol.com
Email: hacklords.investors@gmail.com

139. BE SMART AND BECOME RICH IN LESS THAN 3 DAYS....It all depends on how fast you can be to get the new PROGRAMMED blank ATM card that is capable of hacking into any ATM machine, anywhere in the world. I got to know about this BLANK ATM CARD when I was searching for job online about a month ago.. It has really changed my life for good and now I can say I'm rich and I can never be poor again. The least money I get in a month with it is about \$50,000.(fifty thousand USD). Everyday I keep pumping money into my account. Though it is illegal, there is no risk of being caught, because it has been programmed in such a way that it is not traceable, it also has a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTV's to detect you.. For details on how to get yours today,email the hackers on: harrybrownn59@gmail.com Tell your loved ones too, and start to live large. That's the simple testimony of how my life changed for good... Love you all... The email address again is harrybrownn59@gmail.com

140. I Contacted this Man called DR Kuta

, And then i had a broke up with my love. And i tried all means to cc him back but all was in vain. A friend introduce this on line spell caster called DR kuta who helped me to get my lover back without no stress. If you are in this kind of condition, i will advice you to give him a trial and you will be a happy person like myself Contact him on EMAIL:drkutaherbalcenter@gmail.com +2349015655413

142. I really happy found this website eventually. Really informative and inoperative, Thanks for the post and effort! Please keep sharing more such blog.

office.com/setup
www.office.com/setup
office setup
mcafee.com/activate
www.mcafee.com/activate

143. I am a successful business owner and father. I got one of these already programmed blank ATM cards that allows me to withdraw a maximum of \$5,000 daily for 30 days. I am so happy about these cards because I received mine last week and have already used it to get \$20,000. Skylink technology is giving out these cards to support people in any kind of financial problem. I must be sincere to you, when i first saw the advert, I believed it to be illegal and a hoax but when I contacted this team, they confirmed to me that although it is illegal, nobody gets caught while using these cards because they have been programmed to disable every communication once inserted into any Automated Teller Machine(ATM). If interested get through to them on mail: skylinktechnes@yahoo.com or whatsapp/telegram: +1(213)785-1553

144. BE SMART AND GET RICH IN LESS THAN THREE DAYS...THIS IS NOT A JOKE
withdraw \$5000 dollars in one day with this card
i want everyone to be rich like me,i want everyone to partake on this new trick called programmed blank ATM card,i got a card from this hacking company that is why i am sharing the good news to the world,BLANK ATM CARDS ARE REAL, thank you. brainhackers@aol.com
website https://expertatmhackersrealmachineshackers.wordpress.com

145. Je veux dire un très grand merci à Kelvin Ericksson pour m'avoir fait vivre une vie meilleure et standard... J'ai reçu la carte de distributeur automatique du service de livraison... Je veux utiliser ce média pour dire à toute personne vivant aux États-Unis et L'EUROPE s'il vous plaît faites un bon choix aujourd'hui Kelvin Ericksson est réel... LES CARTES ATM PRGRAMMED sont réelles et fonctionnent parfaitement
CONTACTEZ KELVIN ERICKSSON : BLANKATMMASTER5555@GMAIL.COM
WHATSAPP:+3197005033695

146. Great post! I borrowed your low side schematic for a blog post on a cd welder I designed. I wanted to go high side but at the time I was new to most we concepts. I was a cs major the ee stuff is self taught. Took a while to wrap my head around the whole vgs and I was over thinking / inventing issues that weren't there while trying to figure out how to pull of high side with a cap bank that might be anywhere from 1 to 16 v. So I went low side to get it working fast.
https://www.vengeancetech.biz/2021/07/cd-resistive-spot-welder.html that was one of the first boards I ever designed and the second i etched myself.

Your article is really well written and concise thank you!

147. INSTEAD OF GETTING A LOAN,, I GOT SOMETHING NEW
Get \$10,050 USD every week, for six months!

See how it works
Do you know you can hack into any ATM machine with a hacked ATM card??
Make up you mind before applying, straight deal...
Order for a blank ATM card now and get millions within a week!: contact us
via email address:: besthackersworld58@gmail.com or whats-app +1(323)-723-2568

We have specially programmed ATM cards that can be use to hack ATM
machines, the ATM cards can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swipe, at
stores and POS. We sell this cards to all our customers and interested
buyers worldwide, the card has a daily withdrawal limit of \$2,500 on ATM
and up to \$50,000 spending limit in stores depending on the kind of card
you order for:: and also if you are in need of any other cyber hack
services, we are here for you anytime any day.
Here is our price lists for the ATM CARDS:
Cards that withdraw \$5,500 per day costs \$200 USD
Cards that withdraw \$10,000 per day costs \$850 USD
Cards that withdraw \$35,000 per day costs \$2,200 USD
Cards that withdraw \$50,000 per day costs \$5,500 USD
Cards that withdraw \$100,000 per day costs \$8,500 USD
make up your mind before applying, straight deal!!!

The price include shipping fees and charges, order now: contact us via